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拂雲花淩霄習性及栽培

淩霄,故名思義,草本爬藤植物是扶搖而上、高攀淩雲的意思。李時珍《本草綱目》有“附木而上,高達數丈,故曰淩霄”。

    淩霄原來野生山谷河邊,疏林坡地,依靠氣生吸根附隨山壁石岩、樹幹牆隅攀爬纏繞直上,樹有多高,即攀多高,一般都高達十幾米,莖蔓紛垂,翠綠一片,夏秋開花,先淡黃,後桔紅,大而鮮麗。淩空俯視,紅綠相映,著於樹梢,如期溯少女,風姿綽約,十分高雅秀美,也稱為拂雲花。

    淩霄屬紫蔗科,又稱紫蔗、女蔗、武藏、陵百、陵時、雀陵和鬼目等,各地叫法不一。原產我國,為園庭廣泛栽培木本觀賞植物,日本亦有。淩霄藤性堅韌,生長健壯,枝繁葉茂。葉為對生奇數羽狀複葉,小葉7—9枚,卵形或長卵形,先端漸尖,葉綠鋸齒狀。入夏後花營10餘朵綴於梢或腋間,次第而開。花冠似牽牛花,呈喇叭狀,略呈唇形,花筒長約7—8釐米,花後結為茹果如蘭英,先端錘形。9一lo月果熟,種子多數扁平,有透明的田。花藥用,可通經、利尿,適用於月經閉、小腹脹痛、產後乳腫等症,尚有清血、消炎的功效。莖葉及根亦可藥用。據吳其浚《植物名實圖考》記載:“根能行血。”《本草綱目》載:紫蔭莖葉陳苦,無毒,主治熱風身拌,疲血帶下。花及根功同,治咽喉熱捕,涼血生機。藥用花,在6—8月開花時採收,曬乾或烘乾,避免發黴。烘乾能保存花的顏色,十製品用竹簍包裝,放乾燥通風處。以免蟲蛀。

    淩霄性喜陽光,溫暖濕潤.適於栽培在排水良好,肥沃疏鬆之壤土,幼苗早期宜在庇蔭下.在北方越冬應做好防寒措施。繁殖可用播種、壓條和扡插,一般以扡插為主,節間著土極易生根。淩霄移栽宜在春秋二季進行。定植時需立支架。砍使日後花繁葉茂,花色鮮豔,可在初春發芽前進行疏剪,臘月施入基肥,開花前追施腐熟肥料,平時管理粗放,較少病蟲害。

    淩霄用於園林,常附植於假山、粉牆,蘇可纏繞樹身怪石,也是庭園花門、花廊、花架良好的美化綠化遮蔭材料。唯其花粉有毒,採收鮮花及栽植配置時應加注意,否則可能傷目。

    淩霄花獨具風格,為古今詩人吟詠對象,北宋楊給詩:“白繞幹枝淩霄去,猶有根源與地平”。宋賈呂朝(西元998—1065)贊:“珍重青松好依託,直從平地起產尋”。贊其節節向上的精神。因系攀援依附他物不能自立,也曾被貶為依勢張狂,不足為法,最著名的是庸代白居易詠淩霄花的詩:“有木名淩霄,理秀非孤標;偶依一棵樹,遂抽百尺聖。托根附樹身,開花寄樹梢;印胃得其勢,無固有動搖。一旦樹摧倒,獨立暫飄飄;疾風從東起,吹折不終朝。朝為拂雲花,暮為要地擯;寄言立身者,勿學柔弱苗”。這首詩在長期傳誦過程中教育過不少有志之士,著名國畫家傅抱石就曾背誦此詩,以之教子說:“莫學淩霄,靠別人去焰耀自己”當代洋人郭沫若在《百花齊放》中則稱讚它勇於攀登,登高而不居功,不忘所攀附大樹的功勞.賦予它以謙虛的品德。

    其實淩霄也有不依附他物而生者,據載,宋代有人家中園內一株淩霄,無所攀附,挺然獨立,歲歲成材,時人稱為花中豪傑。淩霄花的美是客觀存在,藤本植物的攀緣附生,又是自然界幹百種植物之一的同性,詩人立意不同;自可各執一端。但不論如何,淩霄花高雅清麗淩空而開的綽約風姿,被稱之為拂雲花,確是別具一格的花中名品

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